This book has been made possible by countless discussions over the past ten years. It would be almost impossible to list the many comrades who, stubbornly trying to keep the prospect of a radical critique of the prevailing reality, have helped me with their ideas and criticisms, with their enthusiasm and erudition, to develop the thesis that I am gathering here, after having published them in part, in different formats.
Among them I must first of all mention, the members of the Workshop on Critical Theories of the Social Research Center of the ARCIS University (Taller de Teorías Críticas del Centro de Investigaciones Sociales de la Universidad ARCIS) and the members of the various programs that produce gathered in that Center, which I, of course, do release of any responsibility regarding the approaches I development in this text.
Particularly important to me, over time, have been the discussions I have had with my good friend Juan Ormeño, with sociologist Sergio Villalobos Ruminott, with Oscar Cabezas, Felipe Victoriano, Mauro Salazar and Miguel Valderrama.
I appreciate the patience of the amazing students of my long series dedicated to the Phenomenology of Spirit of G.W.F. Hegel, by which I have been able to study and discuss the text with detail and erudition unthinkable for lonely depth studies. As will be seen throughout this book, this work has been fundamental to me.
I appreciate the valuable, always attendable criticism Pilar Baeza, Pablo Perez Wilson and Manuel Guerrero Antequera have done to the drafts of this text. The contribution of their knowledge and their sensibilities has been essential, both in those points which have been agreed, and in those where, existentially or theoretically, we have maintained our differences.
I must also thank my children, for the patience and affection with which they have tolerated this vain mania of believing I'm right, the unnecessary vehemence I do defend abstract questions, and the pride and precarious illusion of believing that saying these things may help in some way.