CPB::I. ¿Qué puede ser hoy un marxismo ortodoxo::1. El gesto de Lukacs::02/en
Marxism actually knew the discussion between "orthodoxy" and "heterodoxy" or "revisionism". Given the great political and economic stability of capitalism in the last three decades of the nineteenth century, Eduard Bernstein had already raised the need to "review" the economic doctrines of Marx, and even eventually abandon the centrality of Marxist thought and integrate it into a broader set of theoretical currents that might better account of what was happening altogether. Against this, Karl Kautsky, originally following a line traced by Engels, was trying to show that Marx's theories were "substantially correct" and what had to be done was simply "apply them creatively." Both positions, of course, involved, or perhaps assumed, quite concrete and contingent political choices. In these options, the crucial point was whether capitalism could be overcome through a revolutionary process, or if all you could expect was a progressive extension of the democratic prospects of the system itself, if it was under consistent pressure by all progressive forces.